Index Respiratory Distress Syndrome
What is respiratory distress syndrome?
If a baby is born before his lungs have matured, he will develop respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A baby with RDS tries to cry and breathe at birth, but within minutes to hours he starts working hard to breathe because his lungs tend to collapse with each breath.
A baby with RDS:
- breathes faster than 60 breaths a minute
- makes a grunting sound when he breathes out
- pulls in the chest wall and the spaces between the ribs when he tries to breathe
- has flaring of the nostrils
- has a bluish color around the lips, which means that he needs more oxygen.
Two other possible causes of breathing problems in babies are infection in the lungs (pneumonia) and extra fluid in the lungs.
What causes RDS?
Before birth a baby does not use his lungs because he gets oxygen through the bloodstream. Once the baby is born, the baby’s lungs fill with air and start to deliver oxygen to the blood. To prepare the lungs to work properly after birth, a baby produces a substance called surfactant.
Surfactant lines the air sacs of the lungs and helps keep the lungs open when breathing out. Without surfactant, the lungs tend to collapse with each breath. A lack of surfactant causes RDS.
Babies usually start making surfactant sometime between the 30th and 36th weeks of the pregnancy.
How is it diagnosed?
Certain tests are done to help find the cause of the breathing problems:
- Blood culture: Because the cause of a breathing problem may not be known right away, babies are treated with antibiotics in case they have an infection. Before starting the antibiotics, a sample of the baby’s blood is tested for infection. The test is called a blood culture. If the baby does not have an infection, the test will be negative and the antibiotics will be stopped in 2 days.
- Blood gas test: Blood gas tests show how much oxygen is in the bloodstream. This helps your doctor know how much oxygen the baby needs. It also tells how hard the baby is working to breathe and if he needs help to keep breathing.
- Chest X-ray: X-rays for babies use very little radiation and can help diagnose RDS.
What is the treatment?
There are many effective treatments for babies with RDS, and most infants recover completely within the first weeks of life.
- Special care nursery (SCN)
A baby who has breathing problems is placed on a warming bed in the special care nursery (SCN). He is attached to a monitor that continuously measures his heart and breathing rates. The baby is also attached to a pulse oximeter that records the amount of oxygen in his skin.
- IV fluids
A baby with RDS breathes fast and uses all of his energy to breathe. He does not have any energy left for eating and cannot coordinate sucking with the fast breathing rate. An intravenous (IV) line is inserted into the veins of the baby’s hands, feet, or scalp. The IV provides fluid to prevent dehydration and gives the baby sugar for energy. The baby will be able to take milk after the lungs have improved.
- Umbilical artery catheter
If blood tests need to be done often, an IV line may be put into an artery. This keeps the baby from having to be stuck with a needle each time a sample of blood is needed. The IV is often placed in the artery in the umbilical cord and passed into the aorta, the largest artery in the body. This allows blood to be taken painlessly from the baby. The catheter can also be used to give fluids and medicines to the baby. Veins in the hands and feet may also be used for the IV.
A baby with RDS needs extra oxygen. The baby is placed in a plastic hood into which extra oxygen is blown.
If the work of breathing is too hard for the baby, he may need help from a machine. Two kinds of machine can help the baby breathe:
A nasal CPAP is a device that blows oxygen under pressure in through the nose. It helps inflate the lungs. A strap around the baby’s head holds the CPAP prongs in the nose. The baby does all the breathing but the CPAP delivers oxygen at a pressure that keeps the lungs inflated. Nasal CPAP is used for the bigger and stronger babies or babies who have mild disease and need just a little help.
When a baby gets too tired to breathe effectively, a ventilator may be used. A tube is placed through the baby’s mouth and into the windpipe. The tube is kept in place with tape across the baby’s upper lip. The ventilator blows oxygen under pressure through the tube and into the baby’s lungs. The baby breathes on his own, but the ventilator gives extra breaths.
Babies usually get used to the ventilator and actually feel more comfortable because they don’t have to work so hard to breathe. Sometimes a baby may be irritated by the ventilator. If this happens the baby may be given a mild sedative to help him relax and sleep.
Babies who need a ventilator may be given artificial surfactant during their first 24 to 48 hours of life. If artificial surfactant is given, not as much oxygen or pressure on the ventilator will have to be used, and the baby will get better faster. The baby will still need the ventilator for about 3 days and then will begin to get better as his lungs make his own surfactant.
How long does recovery take?
In the first 3 days a baby’s need for oxygen will often increase. When the baby needs less oxygen, it is a sign that the baby is getting better. If your baby is on a ventilator, the amount of oxygen and breaths he is given will be reduced until he can finally breathe on his own. At this time the breathing tube can be removed.
When the baby is able to breathe easily at a normal rate and does not need extra oxygen, he can begin feedings. If the baby is strong and mature enough to suck, he can begin to breast-feed or bottle-feed. However, often a baby is weak because his lungs are still recovering. A weak baby can be fed by passing a tube through his mouth and into his stomach. Milk is dripped through the tube into the baby’s stomach. This way the baby can be fed without using a lot of energy to suck. Soon he will be able to breast- or bottle-feed.
All babies can go 4 or more days on IV fluids without eating and be fine. Don’t worry if your baby can’t eat at first and loses weight. Once he is well, he will make up for lost time. Even a healthy baby who eats right after birth loses weight in the first week of life.
Are there long-term problems?
Most babies recover completely from RDS with no short-or long-term problems. Long-term problems are usually related to how premature the baby is rather than to the RDS.
Sometimes the air sacs of a baby’s lungs tear. The air that should be inside the air sacs escapes outside the lungs but stays inside the chest. The accumulated air then presses on the lung and makes it even harderfor the baby to breathe. This is called an air leak, or pneumothorax. A pneumothorax may occur at any time with no apparent cause, or it may happen when the baby is receiving oxygen under pressure (on CPAP or a ventilator).
A small pneumothorax does not need treatment. A larger one is treated by drawing the air out through a needle. For the largest or most persistent air leaks, a tube is inserted into the chest and the air is drained out continuously. Over time (hours to days), the air sacs heal themselves and the tube can be removed.
- Chronic lung disease
Babies who have unusually severe lung disease or are very premature may need a lot of oxygen and pressure from the ventilator to survive. This can scar the lungs. Some of these babies may need to be on the ventilator for several weeks and may need oxygen for several months. These babies may be given diuretics to get rid of extra water in the lungs.
Most babies outgrow these problems in the first few months. They grow new lung tissue, which replaces the scarred lung tissue. However, during the first few years of life they may have more bouts of wheezing and may get pneumonia when they get colds. These problems will occur less often as the children grow older.
Almost all babies who have RDS grow up to be healthy, normal children. RDS does not cause brain damage or long-term developmental problems.
Can RDS be prevented?
If the doctor knows that the baby is going to be premature, drugs can be given to the mother to help the baby start producing surfactant before birth.
By testing the amniotic fluid, doctor’s can check if a baby has made surfactant. Amniotic fluid is collected by doing a procedure called an amniocentesis. The fluid can also be sampled right after the mother’s water breaks. If the baby has not yet made surfactant, the mother may be given medicine to try to stop labor and delay the birth.
Written by Patricia Bromberger, MD, neonatologist, Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, CA. Published by RelayHealth.
Last modified: 2011-04-12
Last reviewed: 2011-04-11 This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. References
Pediatric Advisor 2011.4 Index
© 2011 RelayHealth and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.